How Ports of Transport are Reinvented for Inexperienced Vitality Transition –

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In terms of energy conversion, maritime policy is one of the most important battlefields. However, many ports are aware of their ecological and economic vulnerabilities and are working on sustainable development strategies.

According to the latest research results, the sea level will rise significantly by 2100 (an average of 1.1 to 2 meters), around 14 percent of the world's largest seaports are threatened by coastal flooding and erosion. French ports, including 66 for maritime trade, are threatened and need to adapt their infrastructure.

Sea transport accounts for around 80% of world trade in goods. Shipping is responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions. It's up 32% in the last 20 years. If you don't do anything, transport emissions will increase to 17%. World Emissions By 2050.

Enter “Port of the Future”. “The port determines globalized economic activity and is a true“ energy hub ”that unites all modes of transport (ship, land, waterway, aviation). Currently, the port is aiming to reduce real estate and is more respectful. Better integration into the environment and the city, especially through the concept of the “city port”.

Free of oil

At least $ 1 trillion To cut carbon emissions from transport by 50% by 2050, we must invest between 2030 and 2050. 95% energy consumption in transportation. Maritime traffic is expected to increase by 35-40% over the same period.

This dependence on hydrocarbons also makes shipping economically vulnerable to new environmental standards.

In France, the transport of liquid bulk has decreased since 2009 (average decrease of 3% since 2016), despite a slight increase (2.1%) in 2017. Fuel transport (50% of transport by weight (in large sea ports) is also decreased by 25 percent since 2008.

The golden age of oil will not last long given its environmental impact and increasing rarity. As the consumption of hydrocarbons and coal decreases, so does fuel transport.

French government The national low-carbon strategy (“Strategy nationale bas carbone” or SNBC) aims to reduce emissions from the industrial sector by 35% by 2030 and by 81% by 2050. This means an almost complete decarbonization of maritime transport, a sector.

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In order to achieve these goals, ports are working climate-neutrally by redesigning their logistics (flow management) and means of production (added value) as part of their industrial reintegration approach. They use new environmental technologies to generate a double dividend, both ecologically and economically.

Three approaches can be used to achieve these goals: energy efficiency, renewable energy generation, and industrial ecology.

Build the ship of tomorrow

A study by Alliance to Zero from 2021 found that carbon-free fuels must make up at least 5% of the fuel mix by 2030 for international traffic to comply with the Paris Agreement. Around 100,000, according to GTT, which specializes in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG), merchant ships will be affected by this energy transition.

Therefore, an ambitious Green Marine Europe environmental certification program was launched in 2020 to create the European maritime industry of tomorrow.

read on: How to make the transport port more sustainable

New fuel Low carbon dioxide emissions from liquefied natural gas, ammonia, ethanol, etc. and the introduction of alternative propulsion systems need to be accelerated to make the sector greener.

Hydrogen as a fuel (initially “gray”, but now increasingly “green”) is another viable option in the medium term for fleets that are exposed to intensive rotation. The project is currently in its infancy (including small boats with 60-80 seats) but more ambitious initiatives have been launched including: Hydrotug boat under construction for the port of Antwerp.

With the advent of steam-powered machines, the use of large wind-powered clippers ended at the end of the 19th century. However, wind-based technologies have the potential to make a big boom in ships. Sailing and kiting To reduce fuel consumption.

Offshore wind turbines, promising solutions

The development of electrical devices and technologies is also essential for energy conversion. Electric quay, rotating port revetment for energy producers or in development Electric ferry Use solar energy, bioenergy or ocean energy.

As the energy transition progresses, ports will develop from consuming large amounts of a single energy source to generating electricity using several energy sources.

In this respect, offshore wind turbines will change the French coast significantly in the coming years. The first site is near the port (the first French offshore wind farm with 80 turbines, which will be commissioned in Saint-Nazaire in 2022). In the medium term, we want to achieve an output of 5.2 to 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind energy in France by 2028.

This technology brings something new to life in the port area. Industrial diversification sought, optimized real estate yields and local know-how (construction and maintenance operations).

The · upcoming offshore wind farm on Quai Hermann du Pasquier in Le HavreThe offshore wind farm, which went into operation in 2022, is presented as “France's largest industrial renewable energy project” and symbolizes the industrial and energy transition in the port. In addition, the thermal power plants in this area with 220 tons of coal per day were closed after 53 years of operation on March 31, 2021.

Finally, it should be noted that offshore wind farms represent a possibility for ports to generate their own hydrogen through the electrolysis of seawater.

Bring the city closer to the port

Energy transition to the government Rethink the connection between cities and ports. Development projects based on a completely petroleum-based economy and the global boom in container shipping in the second half of the 20th century removed from the urban environment and created a huge industrial port area on the outskirts.

This separation is now being questioned and marks the return of the port as free space for the rest of the city.

If the ship is a port city where residents, industry, business and tourism coexist, pollution will motivate motivated citizens to act. Local environmental protection Propel the port and open it to the city by promoting the development of the circular economy and industrial ecology.

Many ports have launched energy conversion projects aimed at transforming the relationship between the city and the port. The port area has proven to be an excellent environment for experimenting with new practices based on greater collaboration between local actors.

In La Rochel, for example, environmental and energy-related topics offered the opportunity to initiate a joint and shared discussion about the future of metropolitan areas. The Laroshell Zero Carbon Territory In projects that aim to make metropolitan areas climate-neutral by 2040, the energy conversion is carried out by a coordinated plan between cities and their ports. port work on initiatives to limit environmental and energy impacts while providing benefits for the regional economy.

In Le Havre Bordeaux in other parts of the world the city-port connection is being strengthened by combining energy-related challenges with digital possibilities.

Ultimately, this is “Smart Port City” (Connecting “Smart Cities” and “Ports of the Future”) ”, a new model of urban and industrial port areas that is being merged through innovation. “

Make the port a place of modern energy

Although the environmental challenges are clearly huge and complex, this energy transition offers us the opportunity to reinterpret the port as a laboratory and to test new practices and technologies. Suitable example: Port of Rotterdam Reduced CO2 emissions by 27% between 2016 and 2020.

The port is always a showcase of the industrial revolution with the arrival of steam, propellers and metal hulls. They often have the latest energy-related technologies, as shown in the painting of the port of Le Havre by Camille Pissarro.

It is up to them to keep this legacy alive as a real gateway to a more durable and resilient economy.

Translated from French by Rosie Marsland Fast For Word ..

Authors: Sylvain Roche – Lecturer Researcher, Transitioned energétiqueter tritoriale, Sciences Po Bordeaux


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